Thursday, January 30, 2020

Terrorist organizations Essay Example for Free

Terrorist organizations Essay Most of the terrorist organizations that have hit the headlines have religious connotations mostly leaning towards Islam. The al Qaeda, Hamas and Hezbolla all tend to lean towards Islam although this does not mean that Islam condones terrorism. Some of these organizations also fuse their religious motivations to address political grievances. Islamic martyrdom has become prevalent to an extent that most people draw parallelism between the two. Perpetrators of suicide terrorism do so in the belief that it is a ticket to heaven. This is done in the spirit of Jihad which is the advocated method of spreading Islam to infidels. This however has been widely refuted by Muslims. This is despite the indications in the polls carried out in the Middle East showing huge support for suicide terrorism. Suicide terrorism for political reasons is widely discredited but majority support such attacks if they are seen to eradiate enemies of Islam. This would explain the reason why most terror organizations invoke religion in their activities in the bid to draw support from the masses as well as to justify their actions. Muslim scholars have put up a spirited fight however against this discreditation of Islam by linking it to terrorism. Particularly they note the existing differences between martyrdom and terrorism. Latest attacks on the United States and in London were discredited as mere terrorist’s acts with no link whatsoever to spreading Islam. Other suicide terrorists are driven by ethno-nationalistic motivations. This is an argument that has been forwarded mostly by scholars that dispute the role of religion in terrorism. As afore mentioned, these scholars see religion as a mere excuse and justification. One of the key factors that are being seen as driving to suicide terrorism is foreign occupation. According to studies conducted on the subject, â€Å"resentment of Islamic nationals against occupation by the foreign forces, particularly Russia and the United States is contributing to the overall motivation of terrorism. † (Clarke Newman, 2006, 241) An analyzed case in point is the occupation of Palestine by Israel. Numerous scholarly papers have been written on the motivation of suicide bombers in Palestine. One motivation that has been refuted is religion with majority believing that such attacks have no basis in religion. They can however be traced to Israeli’s occupation and its perceived psychological impact to Palestinians. The young suicide bombers are not in any way suicidal but have come to be indoctrinated into a culture that is open to suicide terrorism. Suicide terrorism is advocated for in Palestine as Tore B (2005, 8) notes, â€Å"in Palestinian society and culture, these actions have a completely different meaning; they are acts of self sacrifice. † Palestine has been singled out as one place where nationalism has been a real motivation of suicide terrorism. Israel has had a heavy presence in the west bank and Palestinians have decrying lack of political sovereignty. This occupation according to scholars â€Å"has caused general despair and frustration among the Palestinians† (Tore B 8). Youngsters are being brought up with the knowledge that the Israelis are the source of country the various problems that they experience today. Such indoctrination produces elements that are ready to die in the process of freeing their territory from the yokes of Israel occupation. Where military resistance did not seem to bear any fruits, Palestinians turned to suicide terrorism in the bid to shake the Israelis military powers and demoralize them at home. Islamic scholarly articles have particularly hailed this seeing it as the final resort to Palestinians; this is despite its Western condemnation. Whatever the motivations behind suicide terrorism maybe, it is important to note that its wide usage is driven by a logic which in this case is coercion. All terror activities in general are but attempts to compel the existing regime and authority to concede to the laid down demands. This is done by inflicting pain and causing suffering to such a regime’s interests. A close observation of suicide terrorism reveals that it targets those that stand dialectically opposite to the terrorist’s mission or their sympathizers. Such acts are not carried out in isolation rather they are carried out together with intensified agitation and use of propaganda. The intention is to cause panic and discredit the existing regime. It is important to note here that suicide terrorism is characterized by the fact that the attacker is the weaker element and cannot survive conventional combat. The general feeling is that the perpetrators have exhausted all the existing avenues to air their grievances. Violence however is not the end; the end is to compel the opposers to come around to their line of thinking. As has been mentioned, suicide terrorism is more gruesome and result go huge fatalities in comparison to other forms. The logic behind this is to instill fear and draw huge media attention. They target the civilians to cause a feeling of insecurity and loss of confidence in the government. Target on military bases or personnel are to indicate that they have the capability of striking the core of the states security system. The use of suicide terrorism also makes it easier for the terrorist organizations to link their cause to religious foundations by labeling the attackers as martyrs. It makes the objectives and motivations of the attack look more plausible in the publics’ eyes. The determination to a point of death can in itself arouse sympathy and paint a picture of hard conviction as â€Å"the element of suicide itself helps increase the credibility of future attacks, because it suggests that the attackers cannot be deterred. † (Russell et al, 2006, 5). It is apparent that from the 1990s, terrorism has been on the increase. Security agencies have been put on high alert and Special Forces have been formed to fend off terrorism. Terrorists have stepped up their acts and are matching this increased vigilance with ingenuity moves. Suicide terrorism began taking shape in the 1980s but is in the 1990s that it began to be extensively applied. Like other modes of terrorism it is driven by various motivations which vary from economics, religion and ethno- nationalism. It has become a preferred tactic due to its mystic nature that denotes a high level of determination and invincibility. References Oscar Vilarroya, Francesc Forn I. Argimon 2007. Social Brain Matters: Stances on the Neurobiology of Social Cognition. Rodopi. Robert A. Pape. August 2003. The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. The University of Chicago. American Political Science Review APSR. cls. Vol. 97, No. 3. Retrieved October 03, 2008 from

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